用户登錄

中國作家協會主管

梅利莎·盧克申科:疫情·思考·創作

來源:香港物流查詢 | 梅利莎·盧克申科  2020年12月11日16:01

Jingiwalla jimbelung朋友們好!(原住民語)

 我們剛剛經歷了我們完全沒有預料到的一年,儘管科學家一而再,再而三地告誡我們,破壞自然世界必然會有不堪的後果向我們反撲。幾乎沒有人預料到新冠大流行,而且我想可以不冒任何風險地説,沒人享受恐怖的病毒肆虐。但是我發現自己在尋思我們對於疫情帶來的各種動盪的反應,澳大利亞動盪始於今年二月,其他地方要更早一些。

 正常的生活當然離不開混亂和毀壞,但它們成為人類生存慣例的令人恐懼的基礎。但是對於混亂和毀壞全無意識的接納是澳大利亞現代生活的基礎。從殖民地誕生起就是如此,後來在很多方面也繼續如此。絕大多的原住民堅信,澳大利亞是兩個世紀前誕生於殘酷行為和種族滅絕,並在對歷史的否定中成長至今。對我們原住民來説,澳大利亞是一個將混亂稱為"進步"、將毀壞稱之為"文明"的社會。

 偉大的歐洲哲學家尼采説,秩序出自混亂。至少我一直相信他是這樣説的,直到21世紀的今天,通過使用本世紀帶給我們的驚人技術,我才發現,説這話的原來是好萊塢導演梅爾·布魯克斯,他在《火焰鞍》中自我發揮了尼采的觀點!

 尼采在他的小説《扎拉圖斯特拉如是説》中寫到的,"璀璨星辰始於混沌"。在現代的西方語境中,這聽起來很像常識,就好像託尼·羅賓斯研討會的腔調。沒有痛苦,就沒有收穫那一類的話。但我從一個原住民的角度看,尼采的觀點,無論是其自命不凡的語調,還是背後的哲學,都在宣揚歐陸帝國計劃中不可無視的暴力。他所説的觀點就是混亂對於成功至關重要,甚至有些吸引力。但他的觀點傳達給我這個原住民作家的是,尼采所生活和成長的普魯士知識分子之圈本質上是野蠻的,遠遠沒有被文明化。而真正的文明是在人類中、在我們美麗星球上其他生靈之中,不斷地、認真地尋求和諧。我們原住民語言稱之為“因迪亞馬拉“。我一會解釋這個詞。 我想那句被稱為中國咒語的俗語“願你生活在有趣的時代”應該很適用於當下,混亂雖然“有趣”,但大家都唯恐避之不及。只要對人性有成熟的理解都會如此認為。

 尼采當然是偶像級的,以對抗自己所處的社會的基本特性而聞名。然而,他的哲學思想超越了他的個人生命,強烈説明了原住民持續面對的遭遇。在這片大陸上,數萬年以來,原著民享受符合法理的生活,奉行民主治理,沒人凌駕於他人之上。我們無比幸福地擁有並管理着地球上最壯麗的土地。正如比爾·伽馬格教授描述的,那些鬱鬱葱葱的水道、壯觀的森林和的平原。現代物理學所教的很多內容原住民早就明白,原住民們是傑出的植物學家和園丁,他們懂得尊重養育我們的土壤,土壤是所有生命的基礎。

 然後野蠻人帶着他們的疾病、槍支和套着枷鎖的奴隸,還有對我們原住民的種種謬論,抵達這裏。英國殖民者故意用天花感染了斐濟海龜島的原住民, 我們當中很多人相信同樣的事情也發生在我們的土地上。自18世紀晚期以來,原住民一直活在歐洲疫病大流行中。從那時起,我們就一直在反思被入侵和受到的剝奪。創造不需要給我們原住民帶來混亂。我們早已經在這塊土地上創造了第一個人類社會,沒有戰爭,也沒有瘟疫。我們創造的人類社會基於觀察,基於對我們自然和社會環境的深入、詳細、虔誠的認知。我們發明了社會,我們發明了麪包和農業。我們發明了民主。所有這些都不需要尼采所宣揚的混亂,需要的只是人類共享的觀察、反思和合作能力。我真誠地希望,澳大利亞和整個星球都能夠放棄混亂是萬物核心這個愚蠢的想法,混亂只能帶來更多的混亂。願我們本着“因迪亞馬拉“的精神,重新在我們各族人民之間建設和平。“迪亞馬拉”來自原住民威拉德朱里語,意思是在人類和非人類動物中緩慢行事,採用相互尊敬和適度的方式。這個詞中隱含的意思是"在一個值得活着的世界裏心懷敬意地活着"。

 作為這個地球上的文化長者,也許我們有責任引領更加年輕的、新興民族重建這一認識。我本想不用多講,但經過了這一年覺得還是有必要講一講。我們歡迎大家加入我們的努力,但請把尼采等人的陳舊、具有破壞力的思想留在他們本該屬於的歷史中。我們都是智人,就是會思考的猿人,我們能夠並且必須知曉的更多,做得更好。

 Bugalbeh , 謝謝!

(翻譯:任翔 校對:韓靜)

PANDEMIC. REFLECTION. CREATION.

Melissa Lucashenko

Jingiwalla jimbelung – greetings friends!

We’ve just come through a year that we didn’t expect, despite scientists telling us over and over again that we can’t attack the natural world without expecting terrible consequences to whip back at us. Few expected Covid, and I think its safe to say that nobody has enjoyed its terrible ravaging. Yet I find myself wondering about our responses to these great upheavals we’ve seen in Australia since February (earlier elsewhere). Chaos and destruction are part of ordinary life of course, but they make a terrible foundation for a paradigm of human existence. Yet an unconscious embracing of just these things – chaos and destruction – are fundamental to modern Australian life. This is what the Colony looked like at birth, and it continues to look like it in so many ways. Most Aboriginal people believe that modern Australia is a nation born of cruelty and genocide two centuries ago, and fostered in denial in the present. For us, Australia is a society where chaos is labelled ‘progress’ and destruction is named risibly, as ‘civilisation.’

Out of chaos comes order, said the great European philosopher Nietzsche. Or at least I always believed he said that, until I employed the marvellous technology at our disposal in this century and found that it was actual said by the Hollywood Director Mel Brooks in Blazing Saddles, paraphrasing Nietzsche!

What Nietzsche actually wrote in his novel Thus Spake Zarathustra was “one must face chaos to give birth to a star.” In a modern, Western context, this sounds a lot like common sense, if also a little bit like a Tony Robbins seminar. No pain, no gain, and all that. But from my Aboriginal perspective, this idea of Nietzsche’s – both his imperious tone, and the underlying philosophy, speak to the unmissable violence at the heart of the European imperial project. The idea that chaos is essential to success, and even somehow desirable, tells this Aboriginal writer that far from being civilised, the Prussian intellectual world that Nietzsche inhabited and grew out of was fundamentally savage. For what is real civilisation but an ongoing, serious search for harmony among people, and among the other living beings of our beautiful planet? Yindyamarra, we call it. Yindyamarra.

Surely the well-known Chinese curse “may you live in interesting times” can be employed here to show that while chaos may be indeed ‘interesting’ it is to be avoided at all cost. Any mature understanding of humanity will take this as given.

Nietzsche was an iconoclast of course, and famously in revolt against the mores of his own society. Yet his philosophy has outlived him, and speaks strongly to what Aboriginal people continue to face. On this continent, for tens of thousands of years, First People enjoyed lawful lives, and democratic governance where no man was above any other man. We had the tremendous joy of owning and managing the Greatest Estate on Earth, as Professor Bill Gammage termed our lush waterways and spectacular forests and plainlands. We understood much of what modern physics teaches, and we were exceptional botanists and gardeners, who knew above all to value the soil which fed us, and which is the basis of all life.

And the savages arrived, with their disease, their guns, their slaves in chains and their fallacies about what we are. British colonists deliberately infected Native people of Turtle Island with small pox and many of us believe that the same happened here. We have been attempting to live with the ongoing European pandemic since the late 18th century. We have been reflecting upon the invasion and dispossession ever since. Creation did not require this chaos to be visited on us; we had already, free of war and pestilence, created the first human society on earth here. Our creation of human society came from observation, from the intimate, detailed, reverent knowledge of our physical and social environments. We invented society, we invented bread, and agriculture. We invented democracy. None of these things required Nietzsche’s chaos. All they required was the shared human capacity for observation, and reflection, and co-operation. I sincerely hope that Australia, and the planet, can abandon the foolish idea that chaos is central to anything but more chaos. May we build peace among our peoples once again, in the spirit of Yindyamarra = a Wiradjuri term for acting slowly, respectfully and appropriately among other humans and non-human animals. Implied in that term is the concept of “Living respectfully in a world worth living in.”

Perhaps it is our responsibility as the Elder culture of the globe, to lead younger, newer nations in rebuilding this understanding. I can’t believe its necessary to spell it out, but apparently, in the aftermath of the year this has been, it is. We welcome you to join us in our endeavours – but please, leave the old, destructive ideas of Nietzsche and those like him in the past where they belong. We are homo sapiens – the thinking ape, and we can, and must, know better, and do better.

Bugalbeh – thank you.